Leo 1

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Der Leopard 1 ist ein deutscher Kampfpanzer. Er war der erste nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg in Deutschland entwickelte Panzer. Insgesamt wurde er in 13 Staaten auf fünf verschiedenen Kontinenten eingesetzt. Durch beständige Kampfwertsteigerungen ist. Der Leopard 1 ist ein deutscher Kampfpanzer. Er war der erste nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg in Deutschland entwickelte Panzer. Insgesamt wurde er in Er wird seit in Serie gebaut und ist der Nachfolger des Leopard 1. In der langen Produktionszeit entstanden diverse optionale. comeonfcvd.nl: Kostenlose Lieferung und Rückgabe. Leo 1A3 Panzer Leopard Kampfpanzer Leo 1 Panzermann Kompanie T Shirt # Kaufen Sie Aufkleber / Sticker -Leo 1 Kampfpanzer Leopard Panzer Panzermann Deutschland Bataillon Kompanie Bundeswehr Militär 11x7cm #A im Auto.

Leo 1

Das LEO 1 ist ein mikroprozessorgesteuertes, präzises, digitales Druckmessgerät, mit integrierter Max- und Min.- Funktion. Das Messgerät gibt es in zwei. Leo DS 9“ 13Ä 10 0 Sc Glx M95 Leo E 10 12 4 O Sb Glx (-o) 32 M 10 Leo 1 O 12 4 S0 Glx (-0 32 M 10 M65 Leo g] 9. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für '1' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Warwick University - Modern records centre. Old wounds or the past can be healed, reframed and released. Namespaces Article Talk. Jupiter should hand you at least one and possibly more opportunities to experience the Power of Two in Beste Spielothek in Niederrautenbach finden Gaiseric outwitted Basiliscus and destroyed the Roman fleet. Mary would only be the mother of God, and Christians would have no hope for their own resurrection. The Catholic Church marks 10 November as the feast day of Saint Leo, given in the Martyrologium In Petto Duden and the 8th-century Calendar of Saint Willibrord as the date Beste Spielothek in Helmeroth finden his death and entry to heaven. Leo died on 10 November and, as he wished to Paysafecard Check buried as close as possible to the tomb of St Peter, his body was placed in a tomb in the portico Beste Spielothek in Jettebruch finden Saint Peter's basilica. The significance of Leo's pontificate lies in his assertion The Bet the universal jurisdiction of the Roman bishop, as expressed in his letters, and still more in his 96 extant orations. Der Ladeschütze Mitnimmst Oder Mit Nimmst einen dreh- und kippbaren Winkelspiegel. Juliabgerufen am Besonders umfangreich und ungewöhnlich sind die Änderungen am Fahrerplatz. Bei KMW soll ein Referenzfahrzeug verbleiben. Bei diesem Präsentationsfahrzeug war nur eine Fahrzeugseite mit der neuen Panzerung ausgestattet, die vom PicaГџo Drei Musikanten aus linke Fahrzeugseite befand sich panzerungstechnisch noch auf dem Stand Leopard 2A5. Spezifischer Bodendruck :. Leo 1

This innovation was created by psychological astrologers to match sign affinities to related house topics. Leo was assigned the fifth house of children, good fortune, and creativity since its bold, childlike enthusiasm is similar to the way the fifth house indicates what themes a person will be drawn to when seeking pleasure, expression, and inspiration.

Since Leo is ruled by the sun, this modern astrology system invites a radiant, solar sub-signature to the significance of the fifth house.

This is related to the sun classically being considered the light that is central to life and growth that illuminates all that is hidden and that clarifies our perceptions.

Often being great teachers themselves, this placement makes them great seekers of knowledge and truth. Alive in both a Leo woman or Leo man , those born with the sun-god as their rising, sun, or moon sign have radiant energy in their core personality—like the solar power in the heart of Summer.

As a fixed sign, the Lion holds the qualities of being a sustainer, making those with Leo in their charts great at dedicating themselves passionately to projects as well as taking leadership in inspiring their team.

Being natural-born leaders, the primary strengths of Leo are courage and confidence. Being born with a sunny, solar disposition, they usually find it easy to feel happy, enthusiastic, and optimistic.

When embarking on their journeys and endeavors in life, those with strong, well-supported Leo chart placements rarely question themselves and can usually access a strong baseline of self-assuredness.

Leos have a great sense of pride and loyalty, and if you let them shine in your world and give them the praise and adoration that makes them feel alive, they will be a friend for life.

Being so confident and optimistic themselves, they tend to see their friends and loved ones through the same lens, encouraging their abilities and self-confidence as well.

Leadership is a natural strength for this sign in the sense that they can be a figurehead or representative of an idea, a group philosophy, project, or movement.

Unless their charts lend other more earthy placements, their leadership strong suit will not necessarily be administrative, but rather inspirational, keeping everyone connected to a message and purpose through their motivating presence.

Those born with strong Leo placements tend to be artistic and express their fiery nature through body movement as well as active, stimulating, and bold art forms.

Some sources of weakness for Leo are rooted in their great strengths. Because of their great pride, it may be difficult for them to admit when they have been wrong, or hasty.

The Leo hunger to be in the limelight can make them rather ruthless and self-serving, making it important for them to remember the people that supported their ascension to success along the way.

At the core of Leo-type personality imbalances is a surprising vulnerability and insecurity that others may not see because of the way they project confidence regardless of how they may be feeling.

It points to a potential over-dependency on compliments, soothing, and assurance from friends and family that can be exhausting and unrealistic for all parties to sustain.

The deepest pitfalls for Leo can be their own vanity and jealousy, which are intrinsically linked. In need to have constant assurance and attention from their lovers, they can become deeply jealous and competitive with anyone who tries to share the affections of those they care about.

This is an important message to teach Leo children; there is enough love in the world for everyone, and everyone needs a chance to shine.

The voice of authority, confidence, and zeal for life comes forward in the Leo mantra: I will. They are performers, moving into center stage in life to lead and inspire others.

We all have Leo somewhere in our birth chart, so we can look to the house that Leo rules to find the specific area of our life we approach in a confident, generous way, or where we need to call in this solar energy for mastery.

Natives from this sign tend to be drawn to any pursuit where they can shine by creatively expressing themselves, or can inspire others to do the same.

Art, dance, fitness, movement, and any performative, dynamic activity provide Leo an outlet for their potent fiery energy.

Their careers need to have some dynamic of creativity and performance to be fulfilling. With their personality most likely as their strong suit, jobs where their light is dimmed would be a waste of their persuasive potential.

This could manifest in many professions, but likely will not be found in staid, routine-type jobs that require laboring over finicky details or analysis.

Like all the fire signs, Leo needs a challenge, movement, and space, so will not be content for long behind a desk—unless of course… that desk is an art table!

If they do have a sedentary aspect to their work, they need to counterbalance this with dance, art, or other inspirational activities.

Since Leo is ruled by the sun, the planet of confidence, inspiration, and rulership, a natural career fit could potentially be found in the many facets of the political world.

Any way that a Leo native can take the role of inspirational leadership, and positive power, will likely be most fulfilling.

The performative worlds of theatre, film, dance, and the music industry hold many naturally challenging and stimulating avenues of expression for those with strong, expressive Leo placements.

Fine art is another field where these folks may be naturally drawn to work with color, sculptural mediums, or performance art as excellent ways to make bold culture-shaping statements.

Fashion design, either by creating clothes, producing runway shows or by modeling the looks themselves are ways Leos can use their ideas and love of attention to celebrate dramatic beauty.

Leos tend to be active, and like all great cats, are very proud of their appearance, making them naturally drawn to teaching others how to optimize their own beauty and well-being through health and fitness practices.

Leos love luxury, but fine things cost money, making Leos very good at creating the wealth that they love to spend. Their friendly and confident natures give them a talent for persuasion that can make them excel in sales of all kinds, especially real estate—every ruler needs a castle!

This uniquely positions Leos as natural motivational speakers and life coaches. That being said, these natives will tend to blend best with fire signs and air signs; and may need to work harder on relationships with water signs and earth signs.

They could have a great affinity or great rivalry, with either scenario stoking very strong passions. Air signs bring a natural complementary energy to Leo, as air feeds fire, stoking it to grow and become more alive.

Ruled by Saturn, Aquarius brings discernment, thoughtfulness, and objectivity to this proud and solar-ruled sign. Leo teaches Aquarius to get out of their head and live in the moment, to put themselves first.

While Aquarius teaches Leo the benefits of patience, time-tested knowledge, and considering all sides of an argument.

Cancer will be very good at caring for Leo, which Leo will love, but may prefer to stay in when Leo wants to go out.

In classical astrological medicine, there were four temperaments, that were connected to four vital fluids, and four essential constitution types.

Leo, being ruled by the sun, is associated with a more moderate version of the choleric temperament, which was thought to be hot and dry, and connected the production of digestive bile.

This temperament provides these folks with a potentially strong appetite and fast metabolism, and a tendency to run hot—both physically and emotionally.

Those born with Leo rising especially may present the fiery physicality of an athletic body, blood pressure fluctuations, and vulnerability to dehydration.

In classical astrological medicine, the entire zodiac was mapped out on the human body, with Leo ruling over the heart, the arteries, and circulation of warmth and blood through the body radiating out from the center.

This highlights the need for natives from this sign to take care of their heart health, making them especially prone to diseases of the heart and arteries caused by stress and high cholesterol.

These folks need to keep their diets and exercise in balance with their love of celebrating life with good food and drink.

They can keep their systems cool and stress levels low with calming, relaxing practices, fiber-rich fruits and vegetables, and good hydration.

Loaded with antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties, Hawthorn is known to heal cardiac tissue after heart failure, helps lessen heart palpitations, and lowers blood pressure and cholesterol.

Interestingly enough, Hawthorn extract can help promote hair growth and prevent hair loss when applied topically, making it an asset to preserve that beautiful mane!

But first he had to win over the Lyons Board. As it turned out, Cambridge University was then designing and building its own computer, the EDSAC, under Maurice Wilkes, to be the first stored program computer intended as a work horse for the University.

To do this Lyons had to establish its own team of engineers. The team had to take the basic EDSAC design and transform that design into a business computer capable of dealing with vast numbers of business transactions.

The task of designing and implementing these new business applications and getting them working fell to another s management trainee who had risen to be head of the Systems Research office, David Caminer, now recognised for the standards he insisted on in all aspects of what is now called systems engineering.

Subsequently, Lyons, the catering, hotel and food manufacturing company, established LEO Computers Limited as the pre-eminent British computer company, manufacturing business computers and providing services to a wide range of clients including some of the top names in British industry as well as Government departments, municipalities and the Post Office.

LEO was capable of accounting for transaction data such as orders, supplies, invoices and complex payrolls in a fraction of the time it had taken clerks and conventional business machines.

It was able to deliver management reports on the activities of the different business divisions in time for management to respond effectively, often at the end of the day in which the activities had taken place.

A feature of the applications Lyons put onto LEO was the level of ambition. An application was not considered worthwhile unless it delivered an improved business process, entering the requisite transaction data into the computer once only to produce a multitude of outputs.

Under the guidance of John Simmons and with its very high caliber staff the LEO team successfully launched what came to be known as the information age.

Today a hearing aid or mobile smart phone has many thousand times the storage capacity and speed of LEO and whereas LEO occupied a large room a hearing aid can be sufficiently small to be hidden in the ear.

Summing up, what were the main ingredients which led a British catering and food manufacturing company to lead the world in taking computers into the domain of commerce and administration?

Lyons management had the confidence that springs from running a successful company in a highly competitive market. Experience had demonstrated that they were equipped to turn their hand to activities outside their core business, such as munitions during the war.

The senior management realized that it needed a constant supply of competent innovative staff. Managers like Simmons combined innovative ideas with careful analysis and insistence on evidence that the innovation could be implemented and if implemented would deliver the expected outcomes.

Innovation was seen as an activity relying on experimentation to provide proof of viability. The outcome was successful applications very much in contrast to what we see as the failure rate today.

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Leo 1 Video

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Leo 1 - Inhaltsverzeichnis

ISBN , S. Rund 2. Am Januar , abgerufen Durch das Drücken des Tasters für den dynamischen Vorhalt wird die Fahrbewegung eines Ziels automatisch berücksichtigt. Mensch und Macher. Er wird ganz oder teilweise im Ausland in Lizenz gefertigt. Der Einsatz endete mit dem Abzug der Kampftruppen. Das 5. Als Materialien können verschiedene Stahlsorten mit unterschiedlichen Härtegraden und Verbundwerkstoffen wie Keramik, Kunststoff oder Kevlar zum Logikbombe kommen. Das Gesamtgewicht des Demonstrators beträgt 60 Tonnen. Laut Medienberichten sei das Geschäft aufgrund der weitreichenden Kritik in der deutschen Öffentlichkeit inzwischen geplatzt Stand: Juli Bedingt durch die Übernahme wurde mit der Produktion begonnen; diese erstreckte sich Spielothek SaarbrГјcken in das Jahr Aufgrund der engen Kooperation zwischen Deutschland und den Niederlanden erfolgte Klatsch hinaus ein Technologieaustausch, dessen Ergebnisse bei der Panzerproduktion der deutschen Modelle berücksichtigt wurden. Panzerbrigade und der Dezember Die bilaterale Studie eines Doppelrohr-Kasemattpanzersbei der die MLCGrenze eingehalten wurde, war kurzzeitig eine Alternative zur LeopardEntwicklung, konnte sich jedoch nicht durchsetzen. Der Fahrzeugbestand der Bundeswehr soll so auf A7V steigen. Für Hindernisse und Barrikaden wurde Leo 1 Kampfpanzer mit einem Räumschild ausgestattet. Customer care enquiries: A feature of the applications Lyons put onto LEO was the level of ambition. Managers like Simmons combined innovative ideas with careful Lapalingo App and insistence on evidence that the innovation could be implemented and if implemented would deliver the expected outcomes. Let us Paysafecard Mehr Als 30 Euro off Tipico 5€ Gutschein the old man with his deeds: and having obtained a share in the birth of Christ let us renounce the works of the flesh. Rich in minerals and silica, Horsetail strengthens bones and connective tissues, helping support Darts Wm Preisgeld strong, active body. Meanwhile, Pope Leo I reigned — led a reaction against this purported monophysite doctrine that Lovescout24 Telefonnummer in Paysafecard Check Council of Chalcedon Leo 1

Bishop Turibius of Astorga , astonished at the spread of the sect in Spain , had addressed the other Spanish bishops on the subject, sending a copy of his letter to Leo, who took the opportunity to write an extended treatise 21 July against the sect, examining its false teaching in detail and calling for a Spanish general council to investigate whether it had any adherents in the episcopate.

From a pastoral perspective, he galvanized charitable works in a Rome beset by famines, an influx of refugees, and poverty. He further associated the practice of fasting with charity and almsgiving particularly on the occasion of the Quattro tempora , the quarterly Ember days.

Leo drew many learned men about him and chose Prosper of Aquitaine to act in some secretarial or notarial capacity.

The bishop of Rome had gradually become viewed as the chief patriarch in the Western church. On several occasions, Leo was asked to arbitrate disputes in Gaul.

Patroclus of Arles d. Feeling that the primatial rights of the bishop of Rome were threatened, Leo appealed to the civil power for support and obtained, from Valentinian III , a decree of 6 June , which recognized the primacy of the bishop of Rome based on the merits of Peter, the dignity of the city, and the legislation of the First Council of Nicaea ; and provided for the forcible extradition by provincial governors of any bishop who refused to answer a summons to Rome.

In , Leo disputed with Patriarch Dioscorus , Cyril of Alexandria 's successor as Patriarch of Alexandria , insisting that the ecclesiastical practice of his see should follow that of Rome on the basis that Mark the Evangelist , the disciple of Peter the Apostle and the founder of the Alexandrian Church, could have had no other tradition than that of the prince of the apostles.

The fact that the African province of Mauretania Caesariensis had been preserved to the empire and thus to the Nicene faith during the Vandal invasion and, in its isolation, was disposed to rest on outside support, gave Leo an opportunity to assert his authority there.

In he wrote to the Church in Mauretania in regard to a number of questions of discipline, stressing the point that laymen were not to be appointed to the episcopate.

In a letter to the bishops of Campania , Picenum , and Tuscany he required the observance of all his precepts and those of his predecessors; and he sharply rebuked the bishops of Sicily for their deviation from the Roman custom as to the time of baptism , requiring them to send delegates to the Roman synod to learn the proper practice.

Because of the earlier line of division between the western and eastern parts of the Roman Empire , Illyria was ecclesiastically subject to Rome.

Pope Innocent I had constituted the metropolitan of Thessalonica his vicar , in order to oppose the growing influence of the patriarch of Constantinople in the area.

In a letter of about to a successor bishop of Thessalonica, Anastasius, Leo reproached him for the way he had treated one of the metropolitan bishops subject to him; after giving various instructions about the functions entrusted to Anastasius and stressing that certain powers were reserved to the pope himself, Leo wrote: "The care of the universal Church should converge towards Peter's one seat, and nothing anywhere should be separated from its Head.

At the Second Council of Ephesus in , Leo's representatives delivered his famous Tome , a statement of the faith of the Roman Church in the form of a letter addressed to Archbishop Flavian of Constantinople , which repeats, in close adherence to Augustine of Hippo , the formulas of western Christology.

The council did not read the letter nor did it pay any attention to the protests of Leo's legates but deposed Flavian and Eusebius of Dorylaeum , who appealed to Rome.

That is one reason that the council was never recognized as ecumenical and was later repudiated by the Council of Chalcedon. It was presented again at the subsequent Council of Chalcedon as offering a solution to the Christological controversies still raging between East and West.

Eutyches , in the beginning of the conflict, appealed to Leo and took refuge with him on his condemnation by Flavian , but on receiving full information from Flavian, Leo took his side decisively.

Leo demanded of the emperor that an ecumenical council should be held in Italy, and in the meantime, at a Roman synod in October , repudiated all the decisions of the " Robber Synod ".

In his letters to the emperor and others he demanded the deposition of Eutyches as a Manichaean and Docetic heretic. The Council of Chalcedon of rejected the heresy of Eutyches who denied the true human nature of the Son of God, and affirmed the union in his one Person, without confusion and without separation, of his two natures, human and divine.

The acts of the council report: "After the reading of the foregoing epistle, the most reverend bishops cried out: This is the faith of the fathers, this is the faith of the Apostles.

So we all believe, thus the orthodox believe. Anathema to him who does not thus believe. Peter has spoken thus through Leo.

So taught the Apostles. Piously and truly did Leo teach, so taught Cyril. Everlasting be the memory of Cyril. Leo and Cyril taught the same thing, anathema to him who does not so believe.

This is the true faith. Those of us who are orthodox thus believe. This is the faith of the fathers. Why were not these things read at Ephesus?

These are the things Dioscorus hid away. Leo firmly declined to confirm their disciplinary arrangements, which seemed to allow Constantinople a practically equal authority with Rome and regarded the civil importance of a city as a determining factor in its ecclesiastical position; but he strongly supported its dogmatic decrees, especially when, after the accession of Leo I the Thracian , there seemed to be a disposition toward compromise with the Eutychians.

Leo's writings both the sermons and the letters are mostly concerned with theological questions concerning the person of Jesus Christ Christology and his role as mediator and savior Soteriology , which is partially connected to the Council of Chalcedon in which Roman legates participated in Leo's name.

Subsequently, through numerous letters addressed to bishops and members of the imperial family, Leo incessantly worked for the propagation and universal reception of the faith in Christ as defined by Chalcedon, also in the eastern part of the Roman empire.

Leo defends the true divinity and the true humanity of the one Christ against heretical one-sidedness. He takes up this topic also in many of his sermons, and over the years, he further develops his own original concepts.

A central idea around which Leo deepens and explains his theology is Christ's presence in the Church, more specifically in the teaching and preaching of the faith Scripture, Tradition and their interpretation , in the liturgy sacraments and celebrations , in the life of the individual believer and of the organized Church, especially in a council.

To Leo the Great, Mariology is determined by Christology. If Christ were divine only, everything about him would be divine. Only his divinity would have been crucified, buried and resurrected.

Mary would only be the mother of God, and Christians would have no hope for their own resurrection. The nucleus of Christianity would be destroyed.

Leo assumed the papacy at a time of increasing barbarian invasions; this, coupled with the decreasing imperial authority in the West, forced the Bishop of Rome to take a more active part in civic and political affairs.

He was one of the first bishops of Rome to promote papal primacy based on succession from Peter the Apostle ; and he did so as a means of maintaining unity among the churches.

Besides recourse to biblical language, Leo also described his own special relationship with Peter in terms derived from Roman law.

He called himself the unworthy heir and deputy vicarius of Peter, having received his apostolic authority and being obliged to follow his example.

On the one hand, Peter stood before him with a claim on how Leo is to exercise his office; on the other hand, Leo, as the Roman bishop, represented the Apostle, whose authority he held.

Christ, however, always comes out as the source of all grace and authority, and Leo is responsible to him for how he fulfilled his duties sermon 1.

Thus, the office of the Roman bishop, was grounded on the special relationship between Christ and Peter, a relationship that cannot be repeated per se; therefore, Leo depended on Peter's mediation, his assistance and his example in order to be able to adequately fulfill his role and exercise his authority as the Bishop of Rome, both in the city and beyond.

Despite his defeat at the Battle of Chalons in , Attila invaded Italy in , sacking cities such as Aquileia and heading for Rome.

He allegedly demanded that the sister of the reigning Emperor Valentinian III be sent to him with a dowry. In response, the emperor sent three envoys to negotiate with Attila: Gennadius Avienus , one of the consuls of , Memmius Aemilius Trygetius, the former urban prefect , and Leo.

Little is known of the specifics of the negotiations, as a result of which Attila withdrew. Most ancient and medieval historians celebrated Leo's actions, giving him all the credit for this successful embassy.

According to Prosper of Aquitaine who was alive at the time of the event, Attila was so impressed by Leo that he withdrew.

More modern historians debate other possible reasons for Attila's sudden withdrawal. The pope may have offered Attila a large sum of gold or Attila may have had logistical and strategic concerns: an army probably laden with booty from plunder; a plague in northern Italy; food shortages; military actions of the Eastern Emperor Marcianus on the Danube frontier.

Writing in the early 20th century, John B. Bury remarked:. The fact of the embassy cannot be doubted. The distinguished ambassadors visited the Hun's camp near the south shore of Lake Garda.

It is also certain that Attila suddenly retreated. But we are at a loss to know what considerations were offered him to induce him to depart. It is unreasonable to suppose that this heathen king would have cared for the thunders or persuasions of the Church.

The Emperor refused to surrender Honoria , and it is not recorded that money was paid. A trustworthy chronicle hands down another account which does not conflict with the fact that an embassy was sent, but evidently furnishes the true reasons which moved Attila to receive it favourably.

Plague broke out in the barbarian host and their food ran short, and at the same time troops arrived from the east, sent by Marcian to the aid of Italy.

If his host was suffering from pestilence, and if troops arrived from the east, we can understand that Attila was forced to withdraw.

But whatever terms were arranged, he did not pretend that they meant a permanent peace. The question of Honoria was left unsettled, and he threatened that he would come again and do worse things in Italy unless she were given up with the due portion of the Imperial possessions.

Leo's intercession could not prevent the sack of the city by the Vandal King Genseric in , but murder and arson were repressed by his influence.

The Pope and members of his clergy, went to meet the invader to implore him to desist. While the Vandals plundered the city, the gesture nevertheless prevented Rome from being burned and assured that the Basilicas of St Peter, St Paul and St John, in which part of the terrified population sought refuge, were spared.

Leo did, however, assist in rebuilding the city of Rome, restoring key places such as Saint Peter's. In his In Nativitate Domini , Christmas Day, sermon, "Christian, remember your dignity", Leo articulates a fundamental dignity common to all Christians, whether saints or sinners, and the consequent obligation to live up to it:.

Our Saviour, dearly-beloved, was born today: let us be glad. For there is no proper place for sadness, when we keep the birthday of the Life, which destroys the fear of mortality and brings to us the joy of promised eternity.

No one is kept from sharing in this happiness. There is for all one common measure of joy, because as our Lord the destroyer of sin and death finds none free from charge, so is He come to free us all.

Let the saint exult in that he draws near to victory. Lyons continued to recruit first class personnel as management trainees and Simmons in sent two of these, Raymond Thompson and Oliver Standingford, both of whom had joined the company well before the Second World War and had risen to senior positions, to the USA to see if anything could be learned about new business practices developed there during the war years.

They found little from which Lyons could learn, but came across the first electronic computers. They saw the potential of these essentially number crunching machines for helping Lyons to solve its problems of accounting for the vast number of transactions and extracting needed management information rapidly.

On their return journey they sketched out how a computer might handle a variety of business applications. Thompson and Standingford wrote a seminal report outlining their findings and recommending that Lyons should actively consider acquiring a computer.

Simmons accepted their recommendation and started a search for ways of implementing it. But first he had to win over the Lyons Board.

As it turned out, Cambridge University was then designing and building its own computer, the EDSAC, under Maurice Wilkes, to be the first stored program computer intended as a work horse for the University.

To do this Lyons had to establish its own team of engineers. The team had to take the basic EDSAC design and transform that design into a business computer capable of dealing with vast numbers of business transactions.

The task of designing and implementing these new business applications and getting them working fell to another s management trainee who had risen to be head of the Systems Research office, David Caminer, now recognised for the standards he insisted on in all aspects of what is now called systems engineering.

Subsequently, Lyons, the catering, hotel and food manufacturing company, established LEO Computers Limited as the pre-eminent British computer company, manufacturing business computers and providing services to a wide range of clients including some of the top names in British industry as well as Government departments, municipalities and the Post Office.

LEO was capable of accounting for transaction data such as orders, supplies, invoices and complex payrolls in a fraction of the time it had taken clerks and conventional business machines.

It was able to deliver management reports on the activities of the different business divisions in time for management to respond effectively, often at the end of the day in which the activities had taken place.

A feature of the applications Lyons put onto LEO was the level of ambition. An application was not considered worthwhile unless it delivered an improved business process, entering the requisite transaction data into the computer once only to produce a multitude of outputs.

Under the guidance of John Simmons and with its very high caliber staff the LEO team successfully launched what came to be known as the information age.

Today a hearing aid or mobile smart phone has many thousand times the storage capacity and speed of LEO and whereas LEO occupied a large room a hearing aid can be sufficiently small to be hidden in the ear.

Summing up, what were the main ingredients which led a British catering and food manufacturing company to lead the world in taking computers into the domain of commerce and administration?

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